Tag Archive: baba ambedkar


About Dr B R Ambedkar

Dr B R Ambedkar was born in a caste which was considered as the lowest of the low. People said that it was a sin it they offered him water to drink, and that if he sat in a cart it would become unclean. But this very man framed the Constitution for the country. His entire life was one of struggles. And his personal life was too sad; he had lost his first wife and sons. But even though he did not lose his dareness for the social welfare of people of India. The boy who suffered bitter humiliation became the first Minister for Law in free India, and shaped the country’s Constitution.
Dr B R Ambedkar

Dr B R Ambedkar
It is no wonder that everyone called him ‘Babasaheb’, out of love and admiration. Bhimrao Ambedkar was the lion-hearted man who fought for equality, justice and humanity.
Visit http://www.ambedkar.org/ for more detail
.
Important events/dates in the life of Dr B R Ambedkar
1891 Apr 14 Born at Mahu (Madhya Pradesh), the fourteenth child of Subhedar Ramji Sapkal and Mrs Bhimabai Ambedkar.
1896 Death of the mother, Mrs Bhimabai Ambedkar
1900 Nov Entered the Government High School at Satara.
1904 Entered the Elphinstone High School at Bombay.
1906 Married Ramabai daughter of Mr. Bhiku Walangkar, one of the relations of Gopal Baba Walangkar
1907 Passed Matriculation Examination, scored 382 marks out of 750.
1908 Jan Honoured in a meeting presided over by Shri S K Bole, Shri K A (Dada) Keluskar Guruji presented a book on the life of Gautam Buddha written by him. Entered the Elphinstone College, Bombay.
1912 Dec Birth of the son Yeshwant.
1913 Passed B.A Examination with Persian and English from University of Bombay, scored 449 marks out of 1000.
1913 Feb Death of father Subhedar Ramji Maloji Ambedkar at Bombay.
1913 July Gaikwar’s Scholar in the Columbia University, New York, reading in the Faculty of Political Science.
1915 June 5 Passed M.A. Examination majoring in Economics and with Sociology, History Philosophy, Anthropology and Politics as the other subjects of study.
1916 May Read a paper on The Castes in India’ before Prof. Goldernweiser’s Anthropology Seminar. The paper was later published in The Indian Antiquary in May 1917. It was also republished in the form of a brochure, the first published work of Dr Ambedkar. Wrote a Thesis entitled ‘The National Divident of India – A Historical and Analytical Study’ for the Ph.D Degree.
1916 June Left Colombia University after completing work for the Ph.D, to join the London School of Economics and Political Science, London as a graduate student.
1917 Columbia University conferred a Degree of Ph.D.
1917 June Return to India after spending a year in London working on the thesis for the M.Sc. (Econ) Degree. The return before completion of the work was necessitated by the termination the scholarship granted by the Baroda State.
1917 July Appointed as Military Secretary to H.H. the Maharaja Gaikwar of Baroda with a view Finance Minister. But left shortly due to ill. Treatment meted out to him because of his lowly caste.Published “Small Holdings in India and Their Remedies”.
1918 Gave evidence before the Southborough Commission on Franchise. Attended the Conference of the depressed
Classes held at Nagpur.
1918 Nov Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce & Economics, Bombay.
1920 Jan 31 Started a Marathi Weekly paper Mooknayak to champion the cause of the depressed classes. Shri Nandram Bhatkar was the editor, later Shri Dyander Gholap was the editor.
1920 Mar 21 Attended depressed classes Conference held under the presidency of Chhatrapati Shahu Maharaj at Kolhapur.
1920 Mar Resigned professorship at Sydenham College to resume his studies in London.
1920 May Memorable speech in Nagpur, criticised Karmaveer Shinde and Depressed Classes Mission.
1920 Sept Rejoined the London School of Economics. Also entered Gray’s Inn to read for the Bar.
1921 June The thesis ‘Provincial Decentralisation of Imperial Finance in British India’ was accepted for M.Sc. (Econ) Degree by the
London University.
1922-23 Spent some time in reading economics in the University of Bonn in Germany.
1923 Mar The Thesis ‘The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution’ was accepted for the degree of D.Sc. (Econ.). The thesis was published in December 1923 by P S King & Company, London. Reissued by Thacker & Company, Bombay in May 1947 under the title History of Indian Currency and Banking Vol. 1.
1923 Called to the Bar.
1923 Apr Returned to India.
1924 June Started practice in the Bombay High Court.
1924 July 20 Founded the ‘Bahishkrit Hitkarini Sabha’ for the uplift of the depressed classes. The aims of the Sabha were educate, agitate, organise.
1925 Published ‘The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India’ – dissertation on the provincial decentralisation of Imperial
Finance in India’.

Opened a hostel for Untouchable students at Barshi.
1926 Gave evidence before the Royal Commission on Indian Currency (Hilton Young Commisssion).

Nominated Member of the Bombay Legislative Council.
1927 Mar 20 Started Satyagraha at Mahad (Dist Kolaba) to secure to the untouchables the Right of access to the Chavdar Tank.
1927 Apr 3 Started a fortnightly Marathi paper Bahiskrit Bharat Dr Ambedkar himself was the editor.
1927 Sept Established ‘Samaj Samata Sangh’.
1927 Dec Second Conference in Mahad.
1928 Mar Introduced the “Vatan Bill” in the Bombay Legislative Council.
1928 May Gave evidence before the Indian Statutory Committee (Simon Commission).
1928 June Professor. Government Law College Bombay.

Principal. Government Law College Bombay.
1928-29 Member. Bombay Presidency Committee of the Simon Committee.
1930 Mar Satyagraha at Kalram Temple. Nasik to secure for the Untouchables the right of entry into the temple.
1930-32 Delegate. Round Table Conference representing Untouchables of India.
1932 Sept Signed with Mr. M.K. Gandhi the Poona Pact giving up, to save Gandhi’s life. separate electorates granted to the Depressed Classes by Ramsay MacDonald’s Communal Award, and accepting, instead representation through joint electorates.
1932-34 Member joint Parliamentary Committee on the Indian Constitutional Reform.
1934 Left Parel, Damodar Hall and came to stay in ‘Rajagriha’ Dadar (Bombay). This was done in order to get more accommodation for his library which was increasing day by day.
1935 May 26 Death of wife. Mrs. Ramabai Ambedkar.
1935 June Dr. Ambedkar was appointed as Principal of Government Law College, Bombay. He was also appointed Perry Professor of
Jurisprudence.
Oct 13 Historical Yeola Conversion Conference held under the Presidentship of Dr. Ambedkar at Yeola Dist., Nasik. He exhorted the Depressed Classes to leave Hinduism and embrace another religion. He declared: ‘I was born as a Hindu but I will not die as a Hindu’. He also advisedhisfollowers to abandon the Kalaram Mandi entry Satyagriha, Nasik.
Dec Dr. Ambedkar was invited by the Jat Pat Todak Mandal of Lahore to preside over the Conference. Dr.Ambedkar prepared his historical speech. The Annihilation of Caste’. The conference was cancelled by the Mandal on the ground that Dr.Ambedkar’s thoughts were revolutionary. Finally, Dr. Ambedkar refused to preside and published his speech in book form in1937.
1936 Jan 12-13 The Depressed Classes Conference was held at Pune.

Dr. Ambedkar reiterated his resolve of the Yeola Conference to leave Hinduism. The conference was presided over by Rav Bahadur N. Shina Raj.
Feb 29 Dr. Ambedkar’s Conversion Resolution was supported by the Chambars (Cobblers) of East Khandesh.
May 30 Bombay Presidency Conversion Conference (Mumbai Elaka Mahar Panshad) of Mahars was held at Naigaum (Dadar) to sound their opinion on the issue of Conversion. Mr. Subha Rao, popularly known as Hydrabadi Ambedkar, presided over the Conference. In the morning the Ascetics shaved their beards, moustaches and destroyed their symbols of Hinduism in an Ascetic’s Conference.
June 15 Conference of Devadasis was held m Bombay to support Dr. Ambedkar’s Resolution of Conversion.
June 18 Dr. Ambedkar-Dr. Moonje talks on conversion. Pro Sikkhism.
June 23 Matang Parishad in support of Conversion.
Aug Dr. Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, a strong opposition party in Bombay’s Legislative Council.
Sept 18 Dr.Ambedkar sent a delegation of 13 members to the Golden Temple Amritsar to study Sikkhism.
Nov 11 Dr.Ambedkar left for Geneva and London.
1937 Dr.Ambedkar organised the ‘Municipal Workers’ Union’ Bombay in 1937.
Jan 14 Dr. Ambedkar returned to Bombay.
Feb 17 The First General Elections were held under the Govt. of India Act of 1935. Dr. Ambedkar was elected Member of Bombay Legislative Assembly (Total Seats 175. Reserved Seats 15. Dr. Ambedkar’s Independent Labour Party won 17 seats.)
Mar 17 The Mahad Chowdar Tank case was decided in favour of D.C. by which they got a legal right to use the public wells and tanks.
July31 Dr. Ambedkar received a grand reception at Chalisgaon Railway station.
Sept 17 Dr. Ambedkar introduced his Bill to abolish the Mahar Watan in the Assembly
Dec31 Reception at Pandhapur on the way to Solapur, where he was going to preside over the Solapur District D.C’. Conference.
1938 Jan 4 Reception given by the Solapur Municipal Council.
1938 Jan The Congress Party introduced a Bill making a change in the name of Untouchables. i.e. they would be called Harijans meaning sons of God. Dr. Ambedkar criticised the Bill. as in his opinion the change of name would make no real change in their conditions. Dr. Ambedkar and Bhaurav Gaikwad protested against the use of the term Harijans in legal matters. When the ruling party by sheer force of numbers defeated the I.L.P., the Labour-Party group walked out of the Assembly in protest under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar. He organised peasants march on Bombay Assembly. The peasants demanded the passing of Dr. Ambedkar’s Bill for abolition of the Khoti system.
1938 Jan 23 Dr. Ambedkar addressed a Peasants’ Conference at Ahmedabad.
1938 Feb 12-13 Dr. Ambedkar addressed a historical Conference of Railway workers at Manmad (Dist. Nasik).
1938 Apr Dr. Ambedkar opposed creation of a separate Karnataka State in the national interest.
1938 May Dr. Ambedkar resigned from the Principal-ship of the Government Law College, Bombay.
1938 May 13-21 Dr. Ambedkar went on tour of Konkan Region. He also went to Nagpur in connection with a court case.
1938 Aug A meeting was held at R.M. Bhat High School, Bombay for exposing Gandhiji’s attitude in disallowing a D.C. man being taken into the Central Ministry.
1938 Sept Dr. Ambedkar spoke on the Industrial Disputes Bill in the Bombay Assembly. He bitterly opposed it for its attempt to outlaw the right of workers to strike. He said: If Congressmen believe that Swaraj is their birth-right, then the right to strike is the birth-right of workers.
1938 Oct 1 Dr. Ambedkar addressed a large gathering at Bawala, near Ahmedabad. On return he addressed another meeting at Premabhai Hall, Ahmedabad.
1938 Nov 6 The Industrial Workers strike. The procession (under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar, Nirnkar, Dange, Pasulkar etc) was organised from Kamgar Maidan to Jambori Maidan, Worli. Dr.Ambedkar toured the workers areas with Jamvadas Mehta.
1938 Nov 10 Dr. Ambedkar moved a Resolution for adoption of the methods for birth-control in the Bombay Assembly.
1938 Dec Dr. Ambedkar addressed the first D.C. Conference in Nizam’s dominion at Mahad.
1939 Jan 18 Dr. Ambedkar addressed a large gathering at Rajkot
Jan 19 Ambedkar-Gandhi talks.
Jan 29 Kale Memorial Lecture of Gorkhale School of Politics and Economics, Poona reviewing critically the All India Federation Scheme set out in the Govt. of India Act of 1935. The speech was issued in March 1939 as a tract for the times under the title ‘Federation v/s Freedom’.
July Dr. Ambedkar addressed a meeting organised for Rohidas Vidya Committee.
Oct Dr.Ambedkar-Nehru first meeting.
Dec The Conference at Haregaon was held under the Presidentship of Dr.Ambedkar to voice the grievances of Mahar and Mahar Watandass
1940 May Dr. Ambedkar founded the ‘Mahar Panchayat’.
1940 July 22 Netaji Subash Chandra Bose met Dr. Ambedkar in Bombay.
1940 Dec Dr. Ambedkar published his Thoughts on Pakistan. The second edition with the title Pakistan or Partition of India was issued in February 1945. A third impression of the book was published in 1946 under the title India’s Political What’s What: Pakistan or Partition of India.
1941 Jan Dr.Ambedkar pursued the issue of recruitment of Mahars in the Army. In result the Mahars Battallion was formed
1941 May 25 Mahar Dynast Panchayat Samiti was Formed by Dr. Ambedkar.
1941 July Dr.Ambedkar was appointed to sit on the Defence Advisory Committee.
1941 Aug The Conference was held at Sinnar in protest of tax on Mahar Watams. Dr.Ambedkar launched a no-tax campaign. He saw the Governor. Finally, the tax was abolished. The Mumbai Elaka Conference of Mahars, Mangs and Derdasis were organised under the Chairmanship of Dr.Ambedkar
1942 Apr Dr. Ambedkar founded the All India Scheduled Castes Federation in Nagpur.
1942 July 18 Dr. Ambedkar addressed All India D.C. Conference at Nagpur.
1942 July 20 Dr.Ambedkar joined the Viceroy’s Executive Council as a Labour Member
1942 Dec Dr. Ambedkar submitted a paper on “The problems of the Untouchables in India” to the Institute of Pacific Relations at its Conference held in Canada. The paper is printed in the proceedings of the Conference. The paper was subsequently published in December 1943 in the book form under the title Mr Gandhi and Emancipation of the Untouchables.
1943 Jan 19 Dr. Ambedkar delivered a Presidential address on the occasion of the 101st Birth Anniversary of Justice Mahader Govind Ranade. It is published in book form in April 1943 under the titleRanade. Gandhi and Jinnah.
1944 Dr. Ambedkar founded “The Building Trust and the Scheduled Caste Improvement Trust”.
1944 May 6 Dr.Ambedkar addressed the Annual Conference of the All India S.C. Federation at Parel (Bombay) The speech was later published under the title “The Communal Deadlock and a way to solve it.’
1944 June Dr.Ambedkar published his book What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables – a complete compendium of information regarding the movement of the Untouchables for political safeguards. Dr.Ambedkar attended the Simla Conference.
1944 July Dr Ambedkar founded ‘People’s Education Society’ in Bombay.
1946 Dr Ambedkar gave evidence before the British delegation.
1946 Apr Opening of Siddharth College of Arts and Science in Bombay
1946 May The Bharat Bhushan Printing Press (founded by Dr Ambedkar) was burnt down in the clashes between D.C. and the Caste-Hindus
1946 June 20 Siddharth College started
Sept Dr Ambedkar went to London to urge before the British Government and the Opposition Party the need to provide safeguards for the D.C., on grant of Independence to India and thus to rectify the wrongs done to the D.C. by the Cabinet Mission.
Oct 13 Dr Ambedkar published his book. Who were Shudras? An enquiry into how the Shudras came to be the fourth Varna in the Indo-Aryan Society.

Dr Ambedkar was elected Member of the Constitution Assembly of India.
Nov Dr Ambedkar’s First speech in the Constituent Assembly. He called for a ‘strong and United India’.
1947 Mar Published ‘States and Minorities’. A memorandum of Fundamental Rights, Minority Rights, safeguards for the D.C. and on the problems of Indian states.
1947 Apr 29 Article 17 of the Constitution of India for the abolition of Untouchability was moved by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in the Constituent Assembly and it was passed.
1947 Aug 15 India obtained her Independence. Dr Ambedkar was elected to the Constituent Assembly by the Bombay Legislature Congress Party. Dr Ambedkar joined Nehru’s Cabinet. He became the
First Law Minister of Independent India. The Constituent Assembly appointed him to the drafting Committee, which elected him as a Chairman on 29th August 1947.
1948 Feb Dr Ambedkar completed the Draft Constitution of Indian Republic.
1948 Apr 15 Second marriage – Dr Ambedkar married Dr Sharda Kabir in Delhi.
1948 Oct Published his book The Untouchables. A thesis on the origin of Untouchability. Dr Ambedkar submitted his Memorandum, “Maharashtra as a linguistic Province” to the Dhar Commission. The Linguistic Provinces Commission).
1948 Oct 4 Dr.Ambedkar presented the Draft Constitution to Constituent Assembly.
1948 Nov 20 The Constituent Assembly adopted Article 17 of the Constitution for the abolition of Untouchability.
1949 Jan Dr Ambedkar, Law Minister of India visited Hydrabad (Deccan)
1949 Jan 15 Dr Ambedkar was presented with a Purse at Manmad by his admirers. He addressed a large gathering.
1949 Jan 21 He stayed at Aurangabad in connection with his opening proposed College. During the stay he visited Ajanta – Ellora Caves.
1949 Mar/ may Dr Ambedkar visited Bombay in connection with College work and for a medical check-up.
1949 Sept Meeting between Dr Ambedkar and Madhavrao Golvalker, Chief of RRs and the residence of Dr Ambedkar at Delhi.
1949 Nov Dr Ambedkar came to Bombay for college work meeting and medical check-up.
1949 Nov Dr Ambedkar addressed the Constituent Assembly.
1949 Nov 26 Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution. Dr Ambedkar came to Bombay for check-up.
1950 Jan 11 Dr Ambedkar addressed the Siddharth College Parliament on the Hindu Code Bill. In the evening he was presented with a silver casket containing a copy of the Indian Constitution at Nare Park Maidan, Bombay.
May Dr Ambedkar’s article The Buddha and the Future His Religion’ was published in the journal of Mahabodhi Society, Calcutta. Dr.Ambedkar addressed the Young Men’s Buddhist Association on “The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women”. Dr Ambedkar spoke on the “Merits of Buddhism” at the meeting arranged on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti in Delhi.
1950 Sept 1 Dr Rajendra Prasad, the First President of the Indian Republic laid the foundation stone of Milind Maharidyalaya, Aurangabad. Dr.Ambedkar delivered a speech on the occasion (The printed speech is available with Mr Surwade)
1950 Dec Dr Ambedkar went to Colombo as a Delegate to the World Buddhist Conference.
1951 Feb 5 Dr.Ambedkar, Law Minister introduced his “Hindu Code Bill” in the Parliament.
1951 Apr 15 Dr Ambedkar laid the foundation stone of “Dr Ambedkar Bhavan”. Delhi.
1951 July Dr Ambedkar founded “The Bhartiya Buddha Jansangh”.
1951 Sept Dr Ambedkar compiled a Buddhist prayer book Buddha Upasana Palha
1951 Sept 9 Dr Ambedkar resigned from the Nehru Cabinet because, among other reasons, the withdrawal of Cabinet support to the Hindu Code Bill in spite of the earlier declaration in the Parliament by the Prime Minister Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, that his Government would stand or fall with the Hindu Code Bill. Apart from this Nehru announced that he will sink or swim with the Hindu Code Bill.

Dr Ambedkar published his speech in book form under the title The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women.
1951 Sept 19 The marriage and divorce Bill was discussed in the Parliament.
1951 Oct 11 Dr Ambedkar left the Cabinet.
1952 Jan Dr Ambedkar was defeated in the First Lok Sabha elections held under the Constitution of Indian Republic. Congress candidate N. S. Kajrolkar defeated Dr Ambedkar.
1952 Mar Dr Ambedkar was introduced into Parliament as a member of the Council (Rajya Sabha) of States, representing Bombay.
1952 June 1 Dr Ambedkar left for New York from Bombay.
1952 June 15 Columbia University (USA) conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D., in its Bi-Centennial Celebrations Special Convocation held in New York.
1952 June 16 Dr Ambedkar returned to Bombay.
1952 Dec 16 Dr Ambedkar addressed Annual Social Gathering of Elphinstone College, Bombay.
1952 Dec 22 Dr Ambedkar delivered a talk on “Conditions Precedent to the Successful working of Democracy” at the Bar Council, Pune.
1953 Jan 12 The Osmania University conferred the honorary Degree of LL.D on Dr Ambedkar.
1953 Mar The Untouchability (offences) Bill was introduced in the Parliament by the Nehru Government.
1953 Apr Dr Ambedkar contested the By-Election for Lok Sabha from Bhandara Constituency of Vidarbha Region but was defeated Congress Candidate Mr Borkar.
1953 May Opening of Siddharth College of Commerce and Economics in Bombay.
1953 Dec Dr Ambedkar inaugurated the All India Conference of Sai devotees at the St. X’avier’s Maidan Parel Bombay (His inaugural speech is available with Mr Surwade)
1954 May Dr Ambedkar visited Rangoon to attend the function arranged on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti.
1954 June The Maharaja of Mysore donated 5 acres of land for Dr Ambedkar’s proposed Buddhist Seminary to be started at Bangalore
1954 Sept 16 Dr Ambedkar spoke on the Untouchability (Offences) Bill in the Rajya Sabha
1954 Oct 3 dj- ambedkar broadcast his talk “My Personal Philosophy”
1954 Oct 29 Shri R. D. Bhandare, President of Bombay Pradesh S.C. Federation presented a purse of Rs 118,000 on behalf of S.C.F. to Dr Ambedkar at Purandare Stadium, Naigaum (Bombay)
1954 Dec Dr Ambedkar participated as delegate to the 3rd World Buddhist Conference at Rangoon.
1955 April 3 Delivered a speech “Why Religion is necessary”.
1955 May Dr Ambedkar established Bhartiya Bauddha Mahasabha (The Buddhist Society of India
1955 Aug Founded ‘Murnbai Rajya Kanishtha

Garkamgart Association’
1955 Dec Published his opinions on linguistic states in book form under the title Thoughts on linguistic States.
1955 Dec Dr Ambedkar installed an image of Buddha at Dehu Road (near Pune)
1955 Dec 27 Dr Ambedkar spoke against reservation of seats in the State and Central Legislatures.
1956 Feb Dr Ambedkar completed his The Buddha and His Dhamma, Revolution & Counter-revolution in Ancient India.
1956 Mar 15 Dr Ambedkar wrote and dictated the Preface of The Buddha and His Dhamma.
1956 May 1 Dr Ambedkar spoke on Linguistic states in the Council of States.

Dr Ambedkar spoke on BBC London on “Why I like Buddhism”, Also, he spoke for Voice Voice of America on “The Future of Indian
Democracy”.
1956 May 24 Dr Ambedkar attended a meeting at Nare Park organised on the eve of Buddha Jayanti, Shri B.G.Kher, Prime Minister of Bombay was Chief Guest. This meeting was the last meeting of Dr Ambedkar in Bombay.
1956 June Opening of Siddharth College of Law in Bombay.
1956 Oct 14 Dr Ambedkar embraced Buddhism at an historic ceremony at Diksha Bhoomi, Nagpur with his millions of followers. Announced to desolve S.C.F and establish Republican Party.
1956 Nov 20 Delegate, 4th World Buddhist Conference, Khalinandu, where he delivered his famous speech famous speech ‘Buddha or Karl Marx’.
1956 Dec 6 Maha Nirvana at his residence, 26 Alipore Road,New Delhi.
1956 Dec 7 Cremation at Dadar Chawpatti – Now known as Chaitya Bhoomi Dadar (Bombay).
Advertisements
C (Marathi: डॉ.भीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर; 14 April 1891 — 6 December 1956), also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader, Buddhist activist, philosopher, thinker, anthropologist, historian,orator, prolific writer, economist, scholar, editor, revolutionary and a revivalist for Buddhism in India. He was also the chief architect of the Indian Constitution. Born into a poor Mahar (then considered an Untouchable caste) family, Ambedkar spent his whole life fighting against social discrimination, the system of Chaturvarna — the categorization of Hindu society into four varnas — and theHindu caste system. He is also credited with providing a spark for the conversion of hundreds of thousands of untouchables toTheravada Buddhism. Dr. Ambedkar was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in 1990.
Overcoming numerous social and financial obstacles, Ambedkar became one of the first so called “Outcasts” to obtain a college education in India. Eventually earning law degrees and multiple doctorates for his study and research in law, economics and political science from Columbia University and the London School of Economics, Ambedkar gained a reputation as a scholar and practiced law for a few years, later campaigning by publishing journals advocating political rights and social freedom for India’s so-called untouchables. He is regarded as a Bodhisattva by Indian Buddhists, though he never claimed himself to be a Bodhisattva.
Early life and Education

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar was born in the British-founded town and military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces (now inMadhya Pradesh). He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai. His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambavade in the Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. They belonged to the Hindu, Mahar caste, who were treated as untouchables and subjected to intense socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkar’s ancestors had for long been in the employment of the army of the British East India Company, and his father Ramji Sakpal served in the Indian Army at the Mhow cantonment. He had received a degree of formal education in Marathi and English, and encouraged his children to learn and work hard at school.
Belonging to the Kabir Panth, Ramji Sakpal encouraged his children to read the Hindu classics. He used his position in the army to lobby for his children to study at the government school, as they faced resistance owing to their caste. Although able to attend school, Ambedkar and other untouchable children were segregated and given no attention or assistance by the teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. Even if they needed to drink water somebody from a higher caste would have to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available then he had to go without water, Ambedkar states this situation as “No peon, No Water”. Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkar’s mother died. The children were cared for by their paternal aunt, and lived in difficult circumstances. Only three sons — Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao — and two daughters — Manjula and Tulasa — of the Ambedkars would go on to survive them. Of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar succeeded in passing his examinations and graduating to a higher school. Bhimrao Sakpal Ambavadekar the surname comes from his native village ‘Ambavade’ in Ratnagiri District. His Bhramin teacher Mahadev Ambedkar who was so much fond of him, has changed his surname from ‘Ambavadekar’ to his own surname ‘Ambedkar’ in school records.
Higher Education
Ramji Sakpal remarried in 1898, and the family moved to Mumbai (then Bombay), where Ambedkar became the first untouchable student at the Government High School near Elphinstone Road. Although excelling in his studies, Ambedkar was increasingly disturbed by the segregation and discrimination that he faced. In 1907, he passed his matriculation examination and entered the University of Bombay, becoming one of the first persons of untouchable origin to enter a college in India. This success provoked celebrations in his community, and after a public ceremony he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by his teacher Krishnaji Arjun Keluskar also known as Dada Keluskar, a Maratha caste scholar. Ambedkar’s marriage had been arranged the previous year as per Hindu custom, to Ramabai, a nine-year old girl from Dapoli. In 1908, he entered Elphinstone College and obtained a scholarship of twenty five rupees a month from the Gayakwad ruler of Baroda, Sahyaji Rao III. By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science from Bombay University, and prepared to take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife gave birth to his first son, Yashwant, in the same year. Ambedkar had just moved his young family and started work, when he dashed back to Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on February 2, 1913.
In 1913 he received Baroda State Scholarship of 11.50 British pounds a month for three years to join the Political Department of the Columbia University as a Post Graduate Student. In New York he stayed at Livingston Hall with his friend Naval Bhathena, a Parsi; the two remained friends for life. He used to sit for hours studying in Low Library. He passed his M.A. exam in June 1913, majoring in Economics, with Sociology, History, Philosophy, and Anthropology as other subjects of study; he presented a Thesis,”Ancient Indian Commerce”. In 1916 he offered another M.A. thesis, “National Dividend of India-A Historic and Analytical Study”. On May 9, he read his paper Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development” before a seminar conducted by the anthropologist prof. Alexander Goldenweiser. In October 1916 he was admitted to Gray’s Inn for Law, and to the London School of Economics and Political Science for Economics where he started work on a Doctoral thesis. In 1917 June he was obliged to go back to India as the term of his scholarship from Baroda ended, however he was given permission to return and submit his thesis within four years. He sent his precious and much-loved collection of books back on a steamer, but it was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine.

Fight against untouchability
As he was educated by the Baroda State, he was bound to serve the State. He was appointed as Military Secretary to the Gaikwar of Baroda, which he had to quit within short time, this fiasco was described by Ambedkar in his autobiography “Waiting for a Visa” he states that “This scene of a dozen Parsis armed with sticks line before me in a menacing mood, and myself standing before them with a terrified look imploring for mercy, is a scene which so long a period as eighteen years had not succeeded in fading away. I can even vividly recall it– and I never recall it without tears in my eyes. It was then for the first time that I learnt that a person who is an untouchable to a Hindu is also an untouchable to a Parsi”.Then after he tried to find ways to make a living for his growing family. He worked as private tutor, as an accountant, investment consulting business, but it failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable. In 1918 he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Bombay. Even though he was successful with the students, but other professors objected to his sharing the same drinking-water jug that they all used.

As a leading Indian scholar, Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities. In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu I (1884–1922), Maharaja of Kolhapur. Ambedkar used this journal to criticize orthodox Hindu politicians and a perceived reluctance of the Indian political community to fight caste discrimination. His speech at a Depressed Classes Conference in Kolhapur impressed the local state ruler Shahu IV, who described Ambedkar as the future national leader and shocked orthodox society by dining with Ambekdar. Having resigned from his teaching position, in July he returned to London, relying on his own savings, supplemented by loans from the Maharaja of Kolhapur and his friend Naval Bhathena. He returned to the London School of Economics, and to Gray’s Inn to read for the Bar. He lived in poverty, and studied constantly in the British Museum. In 1922 through unremitting hard work, Ambedkar once again overfulfilled all expectations: he completed a thesis for a M.Sc. (Econonics) degree at London School of Economics, and was called to the bar, and submitted a Ph.D. thesis in economics to the University of London. Ambedkar established a successful legal practice. Early on his legal career, Ambedkar was engagged in a very important lawsuite file by some Brahmins aginst three non-Bhramin leaders K.B.Bagde, Keshavrao Jedhe and Dinkarrao Javalkar. They were being prosecuted for writing a pamphlet that Bhramins had ruined India. On the prosecution side was L.B.Bhopatkar, a great lawyer from Poona, Ambedkar argued his case very ably, put up a very eloquent defence and won the case in October 1926. The victory was resounding, both socially and individually for the clients.

Missions
While practicing law in the Bombay High Court he ran head long in to uplift the untouchable to educate them. To achive these goals his first organizational attempt was the Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha. An organisation to promote education ,socio-economic uplifting and for welfare of “outcastes” or the depressed classes.
By 1927 Dr. Ambedkar decided to launch active movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and marches to open up and share public drinking water resources, also he began a struggle for the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in Mahad to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water from the main water tank of the town.
He was appointed to the Bombay Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in 1925. This commission had sparked great protests across India, and while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a separate set of recommendations for future constitutional

Poona Pact
By now Ambedkar had become one of the most prominent political figures of the time. He had grown increasingly critical of mainstream Indian political parties for their perceived lack of emphasis for the elimination of the caste system. Ambedkar criticized the Indian National Congress and its leader Mohandas Gandhi, whom he accused of reducing the untouchable community to a figure of pathos. Ambedkar was also dissatisfied with the failures of British rule, and advocated a political identity for untouchables separate from both the Congress and the British. At a Depressed Classes Conference on August 8, 1930 Ambedkar outlined his political vision, insisting that the safety of the Depressed Classes hinged on their being independent of the Government and the Congress.
Due to Ambedkar’s prominence and popular support amongst the untouchable community, he was invited to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1932. Gandhi fiercely opposed separate electorate for untouchables, though he accepted separate electorate for all other minority groups such as Muslims and Sikhs, saying he feared that separate electorates for untouchables would divide Hindu society for future generations.
When the British agreed with Ambedkar and announced the awarding of separate electorates, Gandhi began a fast-unto-death while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Pune in 1932 against the separate electorate for untouchables only. Gandhi asked for the political unity of Hindus. Gandhi’s fast provoked great public support across India, and orthodox Hindu leaders, Congress politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo organized joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yeravada. Fearing a communal reprisal and killings of untouchables in the event of Gandhi’s death, Ambedkar agreed under massive coercion from the supporters of Gandhi . This agreement, which saw Gandhi end his fast, while dropping the demand for separate electorates that was promised through the British Communal Award prior to Ambedkar’s meeting with Gandhi. Ambedkar was to later criticise this fast of Gandhi as a gimmick to deny political rights to the untouchables and increase the coercion he had faced to give up the demand for separate electorates.

Political career
In 1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College, Mumbai, a position he held for two years. Settling in Mumbai, Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a house, and stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books. His wife Ramabai died after a long illness in the same year. It had been her long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage toPandharpur, but Ambedkar had refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new Pandharpur for her instead of Hinduism’s Pandharpur which treated them as untouchables. Speaking at the Yeola Conversion Conference on October 13 near Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different religion and exhorted his followers to leaveHinduism. He would repeat his message at numerous public meetings across India
In 1936, Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which won 15 seats in the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly. He published his book The Annihilation of Caste in the same year, based on the thesis he had written in New York. Attaining immense popular success, Ambedkar’s work strongly criticized Hindu orthodox religious leaders and the caste system in general. Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee and the Viceroy’s Executive Council as minister for labour. With What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables, Ambedkar intensified his attacks on Gandhi and the Congress, hypocrisy. In his work Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar attempted to explain the formation of the Shudras i.e. the lowest caste in hierarchy of Hindu caste system. He also emphasised how Shudras are separate from Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party into the All India Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in the elections held in 1946 for the Constituent Assembly of India. In writing a sequel to Who Were the Shudras? in 1948, Ambedkar lambasted Hinduism in The Untouchables: A Thesis on the Origins of Untouchability:
The Hindu Civilisation…. is a diabolical contrivance to suppress and enslave humanity. Its proper name would be infamy. What else can be said of a civilisation which has produced a mass of people…. who are treated as an entity beyond human intercourse and whose mere touch is enough to cause pollution?

Pakistan or The Partition of India
Between 1941 and 1945, he published a number of books and pamphlets, including Thoughts on Pakistan, in which he criticized the Muslim League’s demand for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan but considered its concession if Muslims demanded so as expedient.
In the above book Ambedkar wrote a sub-chapter titled If Muslims truly and deeply desire Pakistan, their choice ought to be accepted. He wrote that if the Muslims are bent on Pakistan, then it must be conceded to them. He asked whether Muslims in the army could be trusted to defend India. In the event of Muslims invading India or in the case of a Muslim rebellion, with whom would the Indian Muslims in the army side? He concluded that, in the interests of the safety of India, Pakistan should be acceded to, should the Muslims demand it. According to Ambedkar, the Hindu assumption that though Hindus and Muslims were two nations, they could live together under one state, was but an empty sermon, a mad project, to which no sane man would agree.
Ambedkar was also critical of Islam and its practices in South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned the practice of child marriage in Muslim society, as well as the mistreatment of women. He said,
No words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman. Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from slavery and caste.[While slavery existed], much of its support was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone, caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.
He wrote that Muslim society is “even more full of social evils than Hindu Society is” and criticized Muslims for sugarcoating their sectarian caste system with euphemisms like “brotherhood”. He also criticized the discrimination against the Arzal classes among Muslims who were regarded as “degraded”, as well as the oppression of women in Muslim society through the oppressive purdah system. He alleged that while Purdah was also practiced by Hindus, only among Muslims was it sanctioned by religion. He criticized their fanaticism regarding Islam on the grounds that their literalist interpretations of Islamic doctrine made their society very rigid and impermeable to change. He further wrote that Indian Muslims have failed to reform their society unlike Muslims in other countries like Turkey.
In a “communal malaise”, both groups [Hindus and Muslims] ignore the urgent claims of social justice.

Father of India’s Constitution

Upon India’s independence on August 15, 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation’s first law minister, which he accepted. On August 29, Ambedkar was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, charged by the Assembly to write free India’s new Constitution. Ambedkar won great praise from his colleagues and contemporary observers for his drafting work. In this task Ambedkar’s study of sangha practice among early Buddhists and his extensive reading in Buddhist scriptures were to come to his aid. Sangha practice incorporated voting by ballot, rules of debate and precedence and the use of agendas, committees and proposals to conduct business. Sangha practice itself was modelled on the oligarchic system of governance followed by tribal republics of ancient India such as the Shakyas and the Lichchavis. Thus, although Ambedkar used Western models to give his Constitution shape, its spirit was Indian and, indeed, tribal.
Granville Austin has described the Indian Constitution drafted by Dr Ambedkar as ‘first and foremost a social document.’ … ‘The majority of India’s constitutional provisions are either directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement.’
The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for women, and also won the Assembly’s support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, a system akin toaffirmative action. India’s lawmakers hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities for India’s depressed classes through this measure, which had been originally envisioned as temporary on a need basis. The Constitution was adopted on November 26, 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951 following the stalling in parliament of his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to expound gender equality in the laws of inheritance, marriage and the economy. Although supported by Prime Minister Nehru, the cabinet and many other Congress leaders, it received criticism from a large number of members of parliament. Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated. He was appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha in March 1952 and would remain a member until his death.

Conversion back to Buddhism
As a profound life long student of anthropology Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar made a remarkable discovery that the Mahar people are originally ancient Buddhist people of India. They have been forced outside a village to live like an outcast as they refused to leave Buddhist practices and eventually they were made into untouchables. He wrote a scholarly book on this topic- Who were Sudras? How they became Untouchables.
http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png
Dikshabhumi, a Stupa at the site where Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar embraced Buddhism along with many of his followers
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar studied Buddhism all his life, and around 1950s, Ambedkar turned his attention fully to Buddhism and travelled to Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced that he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that as soon as it was finished, he planned to make a formal conversion back to Buddhism. Ambedkar twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time in order to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist Society of India. He completed his final work, The Buddha and His Dhamma, in 1956. It was published posthumously.
After meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on October 14, 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his own conversion. He then proceeded to convert an large number (some 500,000) of his supporters who were gathered around him. He prescribed the 22 Vows for these converts, after the Three Jewels and Five Precepts. He then traveled to Kathmandu in Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference. His work on The Buddha or Karl Marx and “Revolution and counter-revolution in ancient India” (which was necessary for understanding his book “The Buddha and his dhamma”)remained incomplete.

Death

Since 1948, Ambedkar had been suffering from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to October in 1954 owing to clinical depression and failing eyesight. He had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll on his health. His health worsened as he furiously worked through 1955. Just three days after completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, it is said that Ambedkar died in his sleep on December 6, 1956 at his home in Delhi.
A Buddhist-style cremation was organised for him at Dadar Chowpatty beach on December 7, attended by hundreds of thousands of supporters, activists and admirers. A conversion program was supposed to be organised on 16 December 1956. So, those who had attended cremation function also got converted to buddhism at same place.
Ambedkar was survived by his second wife Savita Ambedkar and converted to Buddhism with him. His wife’s name before marriage was Sharda Kabir. Savita Ambedkar died as a Buddhist in 2002.His Son Yashwant [Known as Bhaiyasaheb Ambedkar] and doughter-in-low Meetatai Ambedkar is working as National prisident of Bhartiya Baudh Mahasabha and Ambedkar’s grandson, Prakash Yaswant Ambedkar leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.
A number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among Ambedkar’s notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India’s Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.
A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi house at 26 Alipur Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known asAmbedkar Jayanti or Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1990. Many public institutions are named in his honour, such as the Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada university, Aurangabad[Maharashrta] Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University in Hyderabad; Dr BR Ambedkar University in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh; B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University, Muzaffarpur and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar. The other being Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur, which was otherwise known as Sonegaon Airport. A large official portrait of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building.
On the anniversary of his birth (14 April) and death (6 December) and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din, 14th Oct at Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at his memorial in Mumbai. Thousands of bookshops are set up, and books are sold. His message to his followers was ” Educate!!!, Agitate!!!, Organize!!!”.

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, writings and speeches
The Education Department, Government of Maharastra(Bombay) Published the Collection of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar’s writings and speeches in different volumes.
Volume No.
Description
vol. 1.
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development and 11 other essays
vol. 2.
Dr Ambedkar in the Bombay Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939
vol. 3.
Philosophy of Hinduism ; India and the pre-requisites of communism ; Revolution and counter-revolution ;Buddha or Karl Marx
vol. 4.
Riddles in Hinduism 
vol. 5.
Essays on untouchables and un-touchability
vol. 6.
The evolution of provincial finance in British India
vol. 7.
Who were the shudras? ; The untouchables
vol. 8.
Pakistan or the partition of India
vol. 9.
What Congress and Gandhi have done to the untouchables ; Mr. Gandhi and the emancipitation of the untouchables
vol. 10.
Dr. Ambedkar as member of the Governor General’s Executive Council, 1942–46
vol. 11.
The Buddha and his Dhamma
vol. 12.
Unpublished writings ; Ancient Indian commerce ; Notes on laws ; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc.
vol. 13.
Dr. Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India
vol. 14.
(2 parts) Dr.Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill
vol. 15.
Dr. Ambedkar as free India’s first Law Minister and member of opposition in Indian Parliament (1947–1956)
vol. 16.
Dr. Ambedkar’s The Pali grammar
vol. 17
(Part I) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order
(Part II) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the chronological order
(Part III) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches. Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the chronological order
vol. 18
(3 parts) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
vol. 19
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
vol. 20
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi
vol. 21
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s Photo Album and correspondence.

Criticism and legacy
Ambedkar condemned Gandhi’s support for the caste system and perpetuating untouchability. Dr.Ambedkar warned people,”Don’t call Gandhi a saint. He is a seasoned politician. When everything else fails, Gandhi will resort to intrigue.” “Don’t fall under Gandhi’s spell, he’s not God… Mahatmas have come and Mahatmas have gone but untouchables have remained untouchables.”Ambedkar’s legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern India. In post-Independence India his socio-political thought has acquired respect across the political spectrum. His initiatives have influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India today looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar led to his appointment as free India’s first law minister, and chairman of the committee responsible to draft a constitution. He passionately believed in the freedom of the individual and criticised equally both orthodox casteist Hindu society. His condemnation of Hinduism and its foundation of caste system, made him controversial, although his conversion to Buddhism sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy in India and abroad.
Ambedkar’s political philosophy has given rise to a large number of Dalit political parties, publications and workers’ unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His promotion of the Dalit Buddhist movement has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy in many parts of India. Mass conversion ceremonies have been organized by Dalit activists in modern times, emulating Ambedkar’s Nagpur ceremony of 1956.
Some scholars, including some from the affected castes, took the view that the British were more even-handed between castes, and that continuance of British rule would have helped to eradicate many evil practices. This political opinion was shared by quite a number of social activists including Jyotirao Phule.
Some, in modern India, question the continued institution of reservations initiated by Ambedkar as outdated and anti-meritocratic. However, such arguments have always been dismissed by the Dalit masses. They express that the opposition of Caste-based reservations in India, primarily comes from the antagonism rooted in the Hindu society towards the Dalits. And, that the Caste-based reservations in India, in fact,have become the uplifting of Dalits in the post-colonial period.
Outside India, at the end of the 1990s, some Hungarian Romani people drew parallels between their own situation and the situation of the Dalits in India. Inspired by Ambedkar’s approach, they started to convert to Buddhism.

In popular culture
Dr. Ambedkar’s very name became a sign of victory of the down-trodden and long-exploited. Jai Bhim, i.e. Victory to Bhim has become a greeting phrase of the Buddhists all over in India.
Several movies, plays, and literary forms are made based on his life and teachings. Jabbar Patel directed the English-language movie (also dubbed in Hindi and other Indian languages) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar  about the life of Ambedkar, released in 2000, starring the Indian actor Mammootty as Ambedkar. Sponsored by India’s National Film Development Corporation and the Ministry of Social Justice, the film was released after a long and controversial gestation period. Mammootty won the National Film Award for Best Actor for the role of Ambedkar, which he portrayed in this film.
Dr. David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA and Historical Ethnographer, has established a long-term project – a series of films and events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the social and welfare conditions in India. Arising Light is a film on the life on Dr B. R. Ambedkar and social welfare in India.
Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by Arvind Gaur and written by Rajesh Kumar, play tracks two prominent personalities of history — Mahatma Gandhi and Bhimraao Ambedkar.
Ramji, his father desired that Bhimrao learn Sanskrit when he was a young student and Bhimrao enrolled for studying Sanskrit in his School, Elphinstone High School, Mumbai. But he was denied such lessons as he was a dalit. Having come to know of this, an 84 year old vedic scholar from Pune, Prabhakar Joshi, started writing a biography of Dr B.R. Ambedkar in Sanskrit, in 2004. Joshi is a recipient of Maharashtra Government’s “Mahakavi Kalidas” award. Battling his glaucoma and with age advancing, Joshi has completed “Bhimayan” with 1577 Shlokas, as an atonement for the injustice done to the young Bhimrao by some teachers.
Movies based on Ambedkar’s Life
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Samajik Parivarthan Sthal is constructed at Lucknow by BSP Supremo Behanji Mayawati under the regime of BSP. The Chaitya(Sanctum sanctorum/Central Building) consists of monuments showing the Babasaheb Biography and Quotes by Babasaheb.

Reference: